Castles of Japan

Castles of Japan


History of Castles

Fortresses have been built in Japan since early times. A particular need for castles arouse in the 15th century after the central government’s authority had weakened and Japan had fallen into the chaotic era of warring states (sengoku jidai). During that era, Japan consisted of dozens of small independent states which fought each other and built small castles on top of mountains for defense purposes.
When Oda Nobunaga reestablished a central authority over Japan in the second half of the 16th century, and his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi completed the reunification of Japan, many larger castles were built across the country. Unlike the earlier castles, they were built in the plains or on small hills in the plains, where they served as a region’s administrative and military headquarters and a symbol of authority. They became the centers of “castle towns”.
After the end of the feudal age (1868), many castles were destroyed as unwelcome relics of the past or were lost in World War II. Only a dozen “original castles”, i.e. castles with a main keep that dates from the feudal era (before 1868), survive today. Furthermore, several dozen castles were reconstructed over the past decades – mostly using concrete instead of traditional building materials.

Castle Structures and Castle Towns

The typical castle consisted of multiple rings of defense, with the so called honmaru (“main circle”) in the center followed by the ninomaru (“second circle”) and sannomaru (“third circle”). The castle tower stood in the honmaru, while the lords usually lived at a more comfortable residence in the ninomaru.
In the town around the castle, the samurai were residing. The higher their rank, the closer they lived to the castle. Merchants and artisans lived in specially designated areas, while temple and entertainment districts were usually located in the outskirts of the city or just outside of it. Tokyo and Kanazawa are two good examples among many Japanese cities which evolved as castle towns.
The main construction material for castle buildings used to be wood, as can be witnessed when visiting the interior of one of the surviving original castles. Most newer reconstructions, however, were made of concrete, and their interiors are modern. Many castles now house a museum.
The following are some typical castle structures:

Castle Tower (Tenshukaku)
Also known as donjon or castle keep, this is the innermost, best defended and most prominent structure of a castle. Most castle towers have between two to five stories, and there are often more floors inside than there are stories on the outside.
Example: castle tower of Kumamoto Castle
Walls and Moats
Several rings of walls and moats serve as the main defense measure of castles. Osaka Castle and the former Edo Castle (nowTokyo’s Imperial Palace) offer the most impressive examples.
Example: Castle walls and moat of Osaka Castle
Guard Towers (Yagura)
Also known as turrets, these are watch towers and storage rooms along the castle walls, often placed at the corners. Castles usually have multiple guard towers. They are much smaller in size than the main castle tower and are usually made up of two floors.
Example: a guard tower of Hiroshima Castle
Castles have a number of well defended entrance gates. The typical castle gate consists of two gates which are placed at a 90 degree angle to each other, creating a small inner yard which is heavily defended from all sides.
Example: Sakurada Gate of the former Edo Castle
Palace (Goten)
The palace houses the lord’s residence and offices. Most castles have lost their palace over time. A rare surviving example is the Ninomaru Palace of Nijo Castle. Among the few castles with reconstructed palaces are Kumamoto CastleHikone Castle and Nagoya Castle.
Example: partially reconstructed palace of Kumamoto Castle
Best Castles of Japan
Original Castles
1. Himeji Castel

Japan’s best preserved feudal castle.

2.Matsumoto Castle

Original and relatively complete castle.  

3. Bitchu-Matsuyama Castle

Japan’s only original mountaintop castle.

4. Matsure Castle (Matsuejo)

One of Japan’s largest, original castle towers.

5. Hakone Castle

A designated national treasures.

6. Matsuyama Castle

Ruins of another former Ryukyu castle.

7. Hirosaki Castle

Most famous cherry blossom spot in Tohoku.

8.Inuyama Castle

One of Japan’s oldest surviving castles.

9. Kochi Castle

One of Japan’s few surviving original castles.

10.Uwajima Castle

Original hilltop castle with a small keep.

11. Marugame Castle

Smallest keep among the original castles.




1. Shuri Castle

Reconstructed former Ryukyu royal palace.

2. Kumamoto Castle

Beautiful reconstruction of the original castle.

3. Osaka Castle (Osakajo)

Reconstruction of the large castle.

4. Tsuruga Castle

Modern reconstruction of the original castle.

5. Nagoya Castle

Reconstruction of the original castle.

6. Ueno Castle

Beautifully reconstructed feudal castle.

7. Shimabara Castle

Reconstructed castle with nearby samurai district.

8. Hiroshima Castle

Reconstruction of the former castle. 

 9. Iwakuni Castle

Reconstructed mountain top castle. 

10. Okayama Castle (Okayamajo)

Reconstruction of the former castle.

11. Hachiman Castle

Mountaintop castle overlooking the town.

 12. Ozu Castle

Recently reconstructed, pretty hilltop castle.

Palace Style Castles and Ruins

1. Nijo Castle (Nijojo)

Former Kyoto residence of the shogun.

2.  Imperial Palace East Gardens

Park on the former grounds of Edo Castle.

3. Nakagusuku Castle Ruins

Beautiful ruins of a former Ryukyu castle.

4. Kanazawa Castle

Slowly being reconstructed.

5. Tsuwano Castle Ruins

Located two hundred meters above the town.

6. Nakijin Castle Ruins

Ruins of another former Ryukyu castle.

7. Tottori Castle Ruins

Ruins of the former feudal castle.

8. Aoba Castle

Ruins of the former castle of the Date clan.

9. Hagi Castle

Ruins of the former Hagi Castle.

10. Sumpu Castle

Ruins of Tokugawa Ieyasu’s former castle.

11. Fukuoka Castle Ruins (Maizuru Park)

Ruins of the city’s former castle.

 12. Honmaru Goten (Kawagoe Castle)

Kawagoe Castle’s only remaining building.

13. Takamatsu Castle

Ruins of one of Japan’s few seaside castles.

the material is taken from